Social: Social factors involve anything where humans are the central focus. For example, education or access to health care.
Economic: Anything involving money or trade.
Environmental: Things that affect the environment. But be careful, this doesn't always mean a natural environment. It also includes environments such as the centre of a city.
Political: Anything related to the governing of countries, international relations or law making.
Cultural: Concerning the beliefs and traditions of different cultures.
Ethical: Concerning decisions about what is right. Ethical discussions are based on logical arguments rather than someone's personal beliefs.
Moral: Also concerning decisions about what is right, but moral decisions are based on a group or individuals beliefs about right and wrong.
Consequentialism: Also called teleological ethics, consequentialism says that what is right is whatever leads to the best possible outcome. You may have heard it summarised by the phrase 'the ends justify the means'.
Utilitarianism: This is a branch of consequentialism in which what is right is what's best for the most people. This has been summarised by the phrase 'the greatest good for the greatest number'.